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a: o-oepe poee aepa. ocoaoc pee


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o-oepe poee aepa. ocoaoc pee

a poccc a ocaoo cpo, pe eepap e oo oca x ae, o aco ca. opo e a pee poeoo aepaa, a pee ece epea eepap. oo eepapx eopa caoc ooo cp oc opaax ocp a, ocoeo po poex aepao.
ea paecx cceoa oaa, o pooece poee aepa p pepo ax aecx cox paa co oco poo a 3 oa ac. eoe apa a peo pepox poe occ coca ooo 4 p. pe. pa ooo coa. oo oe ee cee, oooc coo e ep aec eca peaeo. oa coc, o aa oooc ec, oeecee poe ooceo oepao aa ep a po aeceo o p x poex pooox aepao pox aaex o-epax a ex ocoax. coco c ooo 10 e. c ce po occ ceac ooe c peee x aepao, o eeoe peoe apa ce a 25-27% e pea 3 p. pe.

ao ec ee oee ooe apa caa coepea a a oe pa x poex pooox aepao poe aaex o-oepe a ex ocoax coco c ooe apa a 55-57%. oo apa coca e oee 1,7 p. pe o (p co ae cex pepox poe a o-oepe). ooec pea e oe e a ea x pe. o a a oe x poea o cocae ooo 15%. o ocoeo x oee coo cooc o cpae c aaoa pepoa. oe ee eco aoa peaoc eco oo, o o pa 20-25 e opac, opee eae op o eee eo o eopee apaa pepoo po. a oo oa-o a opee oe ao, aoe, ce e c. eao oo caoc eeooe ceoee poeo ee ox c ee. pa ao ooeco eaooc a ae coe pe opepe opee a epaoa o, o oo occ. poe, oa ax cepax aco paec cex oeecex copeex po. o ocee o ce- a ao eoope o copo. o o aeaec xo paeceoo aa, apeaeo peee a caoapx pox (a x ac cpae 99%) aepao a pepo. aoe paeco eae a apo, pa opee a o oe e, oap ooec ep p.

acoee pe oco cceoaee, cpoee poepoo e oepae coe o a, o cooae oepx oaopo a ooe oc ao ooeoc po, oopa oe coocaa c opao ooeoc ocax opaax ocp a coope.

ae e aeca oo o-oep aepaa oecea ae caaoe cpo?
eee o-epa oa oxoeo pocccx co oepoo oaopa pae o e () ce poeo o-oepo aepa ():

oe copoeoc caoc apa, oa p ecx epeaax eepap,
oe aee coca,
opoocooc,
oeepap oc acoc,
o cooc ee p oeo eepape.
oa ae ooe, o-epx, coo a apaax a ce ce peex acox epe p oooe ocoa o poe oep p eo ae, o-opx apape occe ocoe opa o oco poecce caa -a eepapx eopa, o peopaae poea opae poeoo opa o o oae oco.
a copoeoc caoc apa oae peocooc opa, peopaa opaoae poee.
oa cooc ee p oeo eepape eae oo peee aepao paoax c ap eo e ape poopx coc, peopaa x ae c oo eca cee poocx coc.

opoocooc cae pc paopaa opa epo ocee-ecex aopoo, oae cooc eepapo pacpeca.

oeepapa oc eae ooo a opa ae o p eepapax o 20-400, oca poeee pao e ceo.

acoc ae o-exaece oaae aepao, pae cooc ec pax apo, oeceae cxpoa ox ex pacpe po c occaoee epoaax paepo e ape eococ opoa.

poa cop ooe aaac 60-x oax 20-o ea.
a poccco pe aepa, p pooce oopx ae coc oepe oaop ( . .), oc 1995 o.

a poocax occ aoee aco peec oep-oaop ooo cpoe po-ae-po epoacoac- (SBS). o ocoeo e, o oo o oe pa eepecee aeca, e p o oee e, e aecee oaop c aao ece.

eco, o coco ocoo pex p eec: ace, o ce apoaeco apao-aeoo ppo, co acaeo; ece aca co aa ee aea. coa cepca ccea, oopo cepcoo cpeo c ae, a cepco ao acae.

cooc cce, o ce peocooc, eocooc ooeoc a, ac o coooe oe aeo cee x cpoca. e oe cpoco, e oee coa ccea, e eeee capee . aca co oecea ea acaeo, o ec oepae x e oooo pacopa.

cooocex ax coepae acaeo ocaoo eo, p ecox eepapax o opa co cpp e, oecea eo oco-acece coca eoxo cooc ee. ae a e ooo co eepap pae. ooeceo, e e eepapa pae (e eee oce ) e ee e acaeo.

poe oo, eoxoo oe, o poecce oce o oeco ace ae a ce ee coepa ooepx apoaecx ooeo, o pe a apao-aeoe coee ocac paec ee. eoaeo, x o acax oaec, a e a coepae acaeo e eo. p oce cepcoa cpea o eec a oeceo (ae), a aeceo (ooaaec apao-aeo e apoaec coee, ea cpoco cepcoo cpe acaea).

p ee oce acoppe apoaece ae a, axa x; p o paep eac 6 - 9 pa. aa cepco cpe, ao e a coca ceo a, oa eo eepap xpoc eepa oa eepap pae. cce oc pa acoc.

p oe coepa e (4-8 ac.%) oea o axeo oepa acoo coa, o o eec oe a: opaec axaa ccea aa, ooaea , aa, ooaea acaea. oeee oepa aeao oee cooaoo acoo aoe a, appeo co ooa ap.

p coo oepa oepa (pepo 12 ac. %) pocxo epa-opaee a, oep aoe caoc aoe aepao (ape), a aoee. oeee cce oep aoae coca oepa: ooceoe ee p pape eaec co pa, peo eaec ocaooe ee, ac caoce coca p.

eee axaeo oepa, a poecc oce a, po ee o aco pa epepacpeee accopoax acaea ace. coa, p ee oepa a oe oceeo opp c acaea a ae a. p ocaoo coo coepa oepa oeco aeo caoc eocao ea acaeo, ocee oap e epo a pacaaec.

a opao, e oee oce , e eee oeco oepa oo eo ec e epa eo ooo caoc. eceo, oepeo ococo c acaeo oepo pecx x oo oaox o cp.

acceca exoo oe -opoaoo oo eo poex aepao aaec ooo pacope oece 12-14% eoceo (ooceo) e apo -40/180 -45/190. p o aec o c oaaee oc o 40-45 eocooc +100 e. aepa, ooee c peee o exoo cooec po ccea caapo aeca, a a DIN, apep.
pooe o-oepoo eo c co eocee -40/180 o ocee a -70/30. ae pecae cpee ooee coca o aax apo, oex e aao-pcoo ecopoe, xapaepeoc aoe cee apoaoc.

c p, o oe a aP a x ee, o ocaoa ae a op ae acaoe coepae oepa, p oopo ccea axoc peco coco:
- a ap -40/180 15-20 ac. %;
- a ap -70/30 eee 8 ac. %.
a opao, o-oepe e c cooae cpeeocex o a -70/30 oaac eca peco coco. ae oee aca, poe oo, apoaoc ace, a, ceoaeo, cpoco a c caec. p eaeo ape cocaa a, apep, poecce caa po p oea (cca ace), epoaec apeao ecoa xaa ccea, oopo ec o ee, pacaaec, pocxo eee acaeoo a, epe ec, caoc , oxpaec.

eco, o poecce aocepoo cape aepao ae eee cocaa o, aaooe ee p ccceo oce o, coepae ace ocoo ae, a acaeo eaec. eoaeo, poecce cape oo, (aoe x oepcoepa) a ocoe cpeeocex o 5-8% oaac oee eco, e paoe coca, oope oo ooa a ooeo-oepe.
a pao, e epe opo poeo pee oepcoepae aepa pac o coca aepaa oceoo a, e cpo caa ooo 10 e.

eece o 2678-94, peaep eo ca aepao a cooece caapa aeca p x pee caeo aopaope, e pecopeo ecpoae aepao a oepa oaopa .
po poe 30547 e pecae oae oepa eo a poe e e 12% o acce. e pecae o a caao cpo poeoo opa .

oco cooc ooo coa, a paooo opo co copo ocopao e, pooe e e oooc ca ceo-, opao cooece peoa aeca, peex a, o eoepae peoaaeoe eoceoe opeee oaeoe aeco.
pooe oepcoepax aepao paca a po oee ee po, eopep opeee, opa ace caca .

poee aepa oo opao c o-oep, a a e oaa ce caao xapaepca acox .

e ceo- ec ceceo oee oe coepae oaopa (5-8%). oo o oc oaaee eocooc oeepapo oc, oppex o, pooe co pe, oee ocee oo oee eocoe ap a, apep -70/30 -60/90. e, pe aepa cxoo coco cooec peoa a o eo- opoocooc.

a opao, acoee pe pooc a a -opoax aepao. epo cae o-oepoe ee coep 12-14% 86-88% a -40/180, o opo 5-8% 92-95% a a -70/30. eee coepa oepa paa ape a po ce oopeeo caoc , a cece, eocaoo ooeoc poex aepao. pa oo, a o, aaec cocae cpoe a eo cece oepa.

coae, ece acoee pe caap e oea oeee aepao poecce caa. oee oo, acoe oepcoepae aepa oocc, cooec c o, oo o e acc aepao o-oep aepaa a ex ocoax. eceo, aop ocox o-execx apaepo, oaex poepe, cooece o caap (eocooc, oeepapa oc p.) oox aepao cpa oce x pooca. oe pe coca poc aoap a pocpaceo aco ap oepa, a oepcoepax aepao ocoo a ce ee coc cepcoo cpe a.

ao caap e coep peoa coca aepao, apep acoc, oope o eo poeocppoa peeca acox . epoaeca cooc x x aepao, a, ceoaeo, x ooeoc o co oac.

ce-a oepcoepae aepa ce e e, e e coepae oepx oaopo poe poee aepa. o o e acoe , a, ceoaeo, e pacca a coce aeoc ooeoc.
eoaeo, cooae accoo cpoece ooceo eex oepcoepax aepao eco acox oe oepc eco oep p caa poe, aeo pea oo p popee. opa ec ca, oa aa, cpoe po papeapoax -opoax aepao, oaaxc oepcoepa, epe 3-5 e (a e epe 15 oee!) e poo peoe pao.

ec pe oe. ax e e ec cepeo, o eoope pooe e pe ooee pa-, xc, o c, oea e a eecx o apaep ea / aeco ceo-. poco poo oa cocaa eo ae e oepo, a aco ce. a cocoa pa oee coca peax a cpo ooo 0,5 oa c oea ca. oo ae aepa cpeeo xac, oaa ce o ce pace. oe ae ee p oaa e aceo oepx aeco opeee, opa aope cepex pooee.

eo, o eee ocapceoo caapa, eee ao p aepao coe papaoa cooece ocp po ca aco aae. e ee, acc pea pocpaco opox po, oa ooo oex.


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